Tuesday, February 23, 2010

The absolute monarchy

  The power in this case is very arbitrary because generally the powers are not separated and not much shared, but compared with tyranny there are more already established principles that the leader respect for this one’s appointment and in order to work out this one’s judgment, moreover there is a court present traditionally in order to orient this one’s decisions, though the persons being part of it can be there for some arbitrary reasons ; what can be because of an order which is still not well established or because of the corruption of the monarch. This way to lead can follow easily the tyranny, thus the tyrant, would make appoint for coming after this one a person of this one’s descendants whom would make continue to be some acquired principles, order which would be propagated in the latter’s entourage ; moreover the wealth according to the enrichment of the successive generations by their domination, would become as important as the warlike spirit. Otherwise this manner to lead could as well come from the corruption of the constitutional monarchy.

Tuesday, February 16, 2010


  Power in this case is less arbitrary that for tyranny, because it possesses some respected bases, in order to take the decisions ; as well according to this manner to lead, the powers are more or less shared and separated [1]. Otherwise in this type of government heredity and wealth are some determining factors, even if there can be some elections, because the choice of the different candidates for the throne is done generally by the link of family [2], there can be as well some combats for the throne but the noble origins are still present, as for William the Conqueror.

[1] : See “The Spirit of Laws”, book 11, by Montesquieu. \ [2] : See book 21, chapter 17, of the work cited previously.

Tuesday, February 9, 2010


  In this case one can find the most arbitrary manner to lead, to such an extent that it almost does not deserve to be dignified of an advanced order, because the order of truth is injured by the desires of the sovereign who does not respect any precept of law if that does not suit this one ; it is an order which uses easily force, it can then logically follow an invasion by some barbarous warriors, or the fact that a part of the people be rebelled in order to satisfy its vices by force and not in order to improve the order in the country for being closer to truth, or follow the rebellion of a king, but it can as well occur in some cases of urgency [1] (as for the short dictatorship for helping good). In this case the established rules and the part of intelligence do not have an important role (what does not exclude a minimum of reflection), because the leader is not becoming attached to any already established principle because generally this one has obtained the place by force or with the acknowledgment for some brutal doings, and thus this one is not disheartened to force the order of things ; moreover excesses are facilitated by the fact that the sovereign possesses all the powers, so the legislative one, the judicial one and the executive one. And for the too much complicated choices in order to know where the interests are this one takes often an intelligent person under control for having some advices [2], without all the same giving to this person too much power, because this sovereign has to be able to satisfy certain vices. This is at the limit of an advanced manner to lead, because rules having not a lot of importance, the arrangement in an advanced structure of inhabitants also ; this type of leader has then to be transitory or this one is going against progress, and especially the possibility to assume certain conditions of life.

[1] : See “Two Treatises of Government” by Locke, chapter 11, section 139 ; and “The Spirit of Laws” by Montesquieu, book 2, chapter 3. \ [2] : See the same work by Montesquieu, book 2, chapter 5.

Tuesday, February 2, 2010

The advanced groups

Once the stability installed in a population of which the density limits the actions, intelligence is expressed more largely with permitting order, and security relatively to some civilizations of the same type. Thus there are different manners to lead some groupings in countries, and in the simplest systems there are tyranny and the absolute monarchy, next some constitutions are coming in order to be the closest to the order of truth (laws, merit…) so to avoid at the maximum the errors and their unpleasantness ; and the intelligence showing its power the links of family are enough weakened in order to allow that it takes precedence more and more, until the arrival of republic, without all the same making forget the responsibility of the family ; nonetheless the will-power to have some wealth and its power is maintaining a pressure in the other direction. But rotten intelligence can make doubt about its utility relating to the people and thus develop a communism where the kinds of persons are more mixed (or give back some importance to the links of family by going backward) ; though one have not to reject the fact that a moral intelligence be ready normally to bring a minimum of resources to each one, what is consolidating the union by the part of serenity received, which will bring some as well in exchange by a fall of aggressiveness and offenses, which are justified by survival. Intelligence in order to enhance its value has then to be used morally.