Wednesday, September 1, 2010

Criticism of gravity by Newton

  In order to sustain my theory about gravity (see my work in physics by making a click on October 2009, in 2009 on the right in the “blog archive”, especially the article 9):

“Conjectures and refutations”, chapter 3, part 3, by Karl R. Popper

About Newton:

… This explains that he did very deeply feel the unfinished character of his theory, also the necessity to consider gravity. “That Gravity, writes Newton (See the letter to Richard Bentley, 25th of February 1692-3 (so 1693); see also the letter of the 17th of January.), is innate, inherent and essential in matter, in such a way that a body can act on an other at a distance […] is for me a so huge absurdity that I believe that a person a minimum competent in philosophy will never can fall in this error.”

A bit further:

“Nonetheless, Newton was an essentialist. He did devote some important efforts in order to search for an ultimate explanation for gravity which could be acceptable by trying to deduce the law of the attraction from the hypothesis of a mechanical thrust, only type of causal action admitted by Descartes because the only one which can be explained by the essential propriety of all bodies, extent. But he did not succeed in it. And we can be sure that if he did succeed, he should have considered that his problem did receive its final solution and that he did find the ultimate explanation of gravity…”


But this is true that to think about different ways to explain gravity can help to have some good ideas about other things, even if what is considered is not the final solution for gravity.

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

About a Cartesian Bank

About a Cartesian Bank:

I only miss the capital, even if I have some wise projects for my money; also I hope that some contributions (see the last post) will bring some.

To loan:

The useful and fair virtue: in order to help to do some virtuous things with enough warranties for the return, without forgetting the fact that for the damages which occurred on what has been lent, there should be a compensation, and this following the price in effect. Otherwise for the interest what should be taken into account are the costs of management, the risk of use against the interest of the lender; also the motivation in order to compensate for the psychological uneasiness coming from the possibility of absence of return, if nothing is done in order to assure that this can not occur. Lastly the fact to have a capital only for loaning money is acceptable, if this is well done, so by having the office of a person of Law, by checking the morality of the borrowers and of their request; as well it can be good to encourage virtue by some growing advantages for the maintenance of a good social order.

The useless and unfair vice: in order to keep going vice, and/or without some good warranties about the return, what pushes to some grave actions in order to recover a possession, which can annihilate the life of a person and of this one’s entourage, while the guarantee to not have to come to this is preferable; unless one is vicious to the point of being perverse, what can go as far as wanting to do an additional margin with the sale of what has been taken for the compensation of the absence of recovery, but here one risks the hatred of some persons who do not have a lot of things which are attaching them to life. Lastly for the interest it is bad to ask too much of it with paying oneself above the merit of the office and the incurred risks, and to favor vice.

Tuesday, April 20, 2010

To contribute

To contribute (about money):

The useful and fair virtue: give some money in order to carry out a virtuous project for which one has a more or less direct interest, what a tax can organize in some cases (knowing this one can bring some returns). For instance, in the case of a virtuous work of which one knows that it will be useful for the state, but which by its character is not being sold directly to the public in a quantity representing its merit (not commercial), public who nonetheless will benefit from it more or less directly, it is true in this case a tax can be organized in order to reward the merit of the one (or those) who has (have) produced this work.

The useless and unfair vice: the same thing for a vicious project. For example: in order to make lose confidence to those who deserve more.

Tuesday, April 13, 2010

The possibility of the spiritual relative democratic republic

Summary (I am proud to announce that J.-J. Rousseau and Montesquieu did not not propose any new model of constitution like I am doing.):

This one would be a variant for the moderated democracy (and less expensive to run), which would consider and respect the intellectual and moral hierarchy in all the people[1], permitting thus a better equilibrium between the different parts of the population (when all of it has to take a decision without any representative, what progress permits more), and a better blossoming of the family by the intermediate of a feminine institution (with the possibility of a woman as a president and a possible government…) permitting more independence to women (what would allow them to develop some works without any masculine pressure, and then to prove what they are able to do) after having considered the importance to have some children before living with more independence (but this period should be accompanied with some rights in order that both parts of the couple have the same amount of respect, like the right to vote for women…) ; what the increase of the number of the rather old women justifies currently.

[1] See:

Tuesday, April 6, 2010


  It is the union of different states, which follow some common rules under a common leadership, and keeping also a bit of independence in order to avoid better the possible neighboring corruption ; more the federation is composed of a high number of different states, more the cohesiveness has to be good in order to ensure an equivalent functioning in all the parts, especially if these states have a rather high population and area, because the listlessness in the changes is a lot more important, because some parts of the population resist in bulk to some other parts which like in the areas close to the border are more open to the foreign influences ; thus it is preferable at least that there are not any tension between the populations of the different states. On the top of that in order that it functions well it is better that the constitutions of the different states are applied at least to some governments which have the same basis, like with some republics ; if not certain important splits that it implies can engender some resistances which are the ones from the transition between a manner to govern and an other one ; this is important in order that the different parts can use the same laws according to some interpretations the closest possible.

  Republics having to maintain a moral standard sufficient in order to orient well the decisions of the people, they must have a cohesiveness the strongest possible, thus their size is preferable when it is restricted, according to what they have to unite in order to resist in the case of an attack of a (some) state(s) less concerned by its (their) cohesion(s) for example ; but it is true that the limitation of the territory seems strange if we consider the current republics, and this because of some things which did correct this problem like transports and media, if there is an effort in order to minimize the possibility to spread vices. But it is more difficult to make cohabit some states like some monarchies which let easily vice spread and are thus aggressive, with some others which have to maintain virtue (so wisdom) hence a rather peaceful atmosphere. But if a union has to be done between some too much different states and then too much independent ones, there is all the same the possibility to make turn the government between the different members (see J.J. Rousseau, “The Social Contract”, book 3, chapter 13).

Tuesday, March 30, 2010

The aristocratic republic

  In this case the too much corrupted people chooses some representatives in order to take all the decisions and even the one of a leader for the executive power, but there is the risk of oligarchy, which arises from the bribery of the representative aristocracy by favoring kinship and wealth, what sends then to monarchy ; this being quite simple when there is not any president and that the aristocrats hold the three powers, it is better therefore in this case that they have some rather short mandates in order that an exterior pressure be maintained on them. Thus this organization is really beneficial if the aristocrats try to defend the interests of the people, by allowing it also to be sufficiently alert intellectually in order to find again the ability to take some decisions. Otherwise in a democracy it is better to mind that some leaders do not push toward vice in order to be able to install an aristocracy, by aiming an oligarchy.

Tuesday, March 23, 2010

The democratic republic with a house of representatives

  The people lets its power be organized according to the specificity of the decisions and thus gives up its direct legislative power to a part of a parliament ; thus those who are designated as representatives of the people’s power have to help it to stay moral at the maximum in order to assume the other decisions, what is implied by the social contract. These representatives in our current democracies form what can be called the House of Representatives, which with what corresponds to the Senate form the Parliament (or Congress) which is used for legislating ; for what is concerning the Senate it can be occupied by the nobility and the clergy, or by some elected persons chosen by the representatives of the people, or by some persons directly elected by the people under some special conditions for being eligible, if we refer to the 17th amendment to the U.S. constitution added in 1913 and refer to the article 1, section 3 of the same constitution.

Tuesday, March 16, 2010

The absolute democratic republic

  People compared with some other categories likes to emphasize the fact that it is composed of numerous persons, thus the intelligence formed by the totality of the people becomes a dominant factor of choice ; but the problem is that intelligence is not the same in all the people, according to what some choices prove logically to not be able to go always really in the sense of the interest of the country in the long term, and risk even according to the majority to let a bit too much sensuality be installed and then corruption to the detriment of the intellect ; and this even if the government is trying to push at the maximum the abilities of the citizens in order to assume their legislative activity, because the pressure thus formed can become too much constraining for some persons, who risk to want to install a less constraining communism ; moreover relatively to abilities, in the common education an intellectual and moral hierarchy appears, it should be then a minimum respected in order to make the choices. About the choices they are used at first for electing some leaders by the intermediate of the universal suffrage, after they can be applied to the different powers ; but the people is generally not holding the three powers in a direct manner, it participates in the legislative one and it is especially in this case that it is important to do some shades in the ability to evaluate a law and its consequences ; otherwise the general will is generally not participating in the judicial power, nonetheless in a particular manner some persons of the people can be chosen in order to be jurors, and if there is a nobility and a clergy the people is considered by the origin of certain judges ; finally for the executive power the general will elects the leader corresponding to this power according to this person’s program, who chooses after some representatives, nonetheless some referendums can take place in order to consult the people ; otherwise the general will on the top of that can be divided according to the territory in order to choose more or less directly some representatives of the executive power who can be the leaders of some administrative divisions like towns and other subnational entities.

Tuesday, March 9, 2010


  Normally it rejects the choice of the leader relative to heredity and wealth, in order to make prevail the free will, so reflection, but which has to be moral in order to be really suitable, thus the universal suffrage becomes the tool for choosing ; also the importance of the morality makes that a real social contract is creating (between each one and the others) in order to maintain it as good as possible ; after the people and those who come from it participate particularly in the reflections of the state, what depends on how they are accompanied if we consider the distribution of the different powers (see “The Spirit of Laws”, book 11, by Montesquieu).

Tuesday, March 2, 2010

The constitutional monarchy

  At this stage there is an order which is installed between several dominant families which form the nobility and a possible clergy, thus the court is structuring in an organized manner and there are some places already definite in their functions, according to what the powers can be separated and shared more easily ; thus the principles are preserved and the decisions discussed ; generally thanks to vote and not to heredity the people also has its representatives though they can not try to make believe in a divine right being able to justified anything. After a parliament can be organized in order to share out the legislative power ; thus the dialogues increase and intelligence can compete with heredity.

This manner to lead could come differently that with the organization of the power after an invasion, if we imagine an organization by the grouping of families of which the proximity increases always, and which possess as well between them some links of family, but at the basic stage it is often violence which solves the problems, what lets presume some streaks with tyranny.

Tuesday, February 23, 2010

The absolute monarchy

  The power in this case is very arbitrary because generally the powers are not separated and not much shared, but compared with tyranny there are more already established principles that the leader respect for this one’s appointment and in order to work out this one’s judgment, moreover there is a court present traditionally in order to orient this one’s decisions, though the persons being part of it can be there for some arbitrary reasons ; what can be because of an order which is still not well established or because of the corruption of the monarch. This way to lead can follow easily the tyranny, thus the tyrant, would make appoint for coming after this one a person of this one’s descendants whom would make continue to be some acquired principles, order which would be propagated in the latter’s entourage ; moreover the wealth according to the enrichment of the successive generations by their domination, would become as important as the warlike spirit. Otherwise this manner to lead could as well come from the corruption of the constitutional monarchy.

Tuesday, February 16, 2010


  Power in this case is less arbitrary that for tyranny, because it possesses some respected bases, in order to take the decisions ; as well according to this manner to lead, the powers are more or less shared and separated [1]. Otherwise in this type of government heredity and wealth are some determining factors, even if there can be some elections, because the choice of the different candidates for the throne is done generally by the link of family [2], there can be as well some combats for the throne but the noble origins are still present, as for William the Conqueror.

[1] : See “The Spirit of Laws”, book 11, by Montesquieu. \ [2] : See book 21, chapter 17, of the work cited previously.

Tuesday, February 9, 2010


  In this case one can find the most arbitrary manner to lead, to such an extent that it almost does not deserve to be dignified of an advanced order, because the order of truth is injured by the desires of the sovereign who does not respect any precept of law if that does not suit this one ; it is an order which uses easily force, it can then logically follow an invasion by some barbarous warriors, or the fact that a part of the people be rebelled in order to satisfy its vices by force and not in order to improve the order in the country for being closer to truth, or follow the rebellion of a king, but it can as well occur in some cases of urgency [1] (as for the short dictatorship for helping good). In this case the established rules and the part of intelligence do not have an important role (what does not exclude a minimum of reflection), because the leader is not becoming attached to any already established principle because generally this one has obtained the place by force or with the acknowledgment for some brutal doings, and thus this one is not disheartened to force the order of things ; moreover excesses are facilitated by the fact that the sovereign possesses all the powers, so the legislative one, the judicial one and the executive one. And for the too much complicated choices in order to know where the interests are this one takes often an intelligent person under control for having some advices [2], without all the same giving to this person too much power, because this sovereign has to be able to satisfy certain vices. This is at the limit of an advanced manner to lead, because rules having not a lot of importance, the arrangement in an advanced structure of inhabitants also ; this type of leader has then to be transitory or this one is going against progress, and especially the possibility to assume certain conditions of life.

[1] : See “Two Treatises of Government” by Locke, chapter 11, section 139 ; and “The Spirit of Laws” by Montesquieu, book 2, chapter 3. \ [2] : See the same work by Montesquieu, book 2, chapter 5.

Tuesday, February 2, 2010

The advanced groups

Once the stability installed in a population of which the density limits the actions, intelligence is expressed more largely with permitting order, and security relatively to some civilizations of the same type. Thus there are different manners to lead some groupings in countries, and in the simplest systems there are tyranny and the absolute monarchy, next some constitutions are coming in order to be the closest to the order of truth (laws, merit…) so to avoid at the maximum the errors and their unpleasantness ; and the intelligence showing its power the links of family are enough weakened in order to allow that it takes precedence more and more, until the arrival of republic, without all the same making forget the responsibility of the family ; nonetheless the will-power to have some wealth and its power is maintaining a pressure in the other direction. But rotten intelligence can make doubt about its utility relating to the people and thus develop a communism where the kinds of persons are more mixed (or give back some importance to the links of family by going backward) ; though one have not to reject the fact that a moral intelligence be ready normally to bring a minimum of resources to each one, what is consolidating the union by the part of serenity received, which will bring some as well in exchange by a fall of aggressiveness and offenses, which are justified by survival. Intelligence in order to enhance its value has then to be used morally.

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Mixture of styles

According to the relief and the climate there are some styles of life which resist more to evolution like fishing on coasts, the pastoral breeding in mountains, warlike culture where climate makes the life too much unpleasant ; the stabilization is then occurring in plains and the fertile valleys, but this stabilization allows as well the division of the activities by settling some rules of exchange, thus these rules can spread and apply to the groups living according to some different styles of life ; knowing that the agreements with some warriors can assure the peace with them and the security relatively to some other groups of warriors, also considering regardless of the contribution of these groups that there are always some not much favored persons in the population who are ready to fight in order to have something, without forgetting in the event of a problem those who want to defend what they have, of which the common advantages.

Tuesday, January 19, 2010

Cultivators / breeders

In this case we presume that there is already a quite important population because there is a lot of regularization in order to assure the most possible of productivity on a same area ; this leading to an industrial logic. In this situation the breeding of the beasts is not exactly like with pastors because a part of the cultures will be able to be used in order to feed them, with allowing to move less and to vary the breedings. At this level of stability the things are well settled, and the rules have then more easiness to spread, as well the distributions of activities and the organization of exchanges are done more easily ; thus the education is more advanced according to the quantity of the things to know, what in order to facilitate the memorization pushes to develop writing, which helps to install a common memory useful in order to affront some facts which occurred in a cyclic manner with a possible difference of several generations between two apparitions. Intelligence becomes then more in demand because it allows often a lesser effort which is to think for a greater good which is to be able to avoid some hostilities and other problems ; it is then a moral tool which allows to develop ethics, but there are also some risks of deviation because its too much negatively selfish use can lead to sophism, nonetheless in this case problems are not avoided in an optimal manner, because there is the pressure of vengeances.

Tuesday, January 12, 2010

The pastoral persons

It would be normal that in order to avoid the problems of the migration of the chase between some different territories and even in order to not have to do some too much important moves to follow it, there be some who capture and tame some animals in order to be ensured of the possession of their resources, without having to move too much, knowing moreover that it is unpleasant for one to leave a place where this one has its landmark in order to be in harmony with its environment. Obviously it has to be possible for the livestock to graze, but this allows to be more sedentary, and does not need a lot of rules, it is especially important to consider the distribution of meadows ; thus for a people living especially in this manner a lot of surface for the beasts is needed, so few pastors, hence a small group ; for example as rules there should be an union for the protection of flocks against robbery, and the attacks of the wild beasts, and an organization for the move of the cattle. This kind of organization is adapting easily to mountain because it is difficult to work with this land and to move on it in order to chase, nonetheless it gives some pasturage allowing a durable dairy production.

Thursday, January 7, 2010

The barbarous warriors

Those instead of doing too much efforts in order to be in peace prefer to plunder their neighbors and their territories, but this style of life means some morals quite not easy to live with in a group, because based on crime, the affront of death and the disdain of one's own serenity ; thus for their well-being they should finish by pacifying themselves as much as possible after having conquered what could permit them to live.

Tuesday, January 5, 2010

The basic groups

We can consider that man and woman are adapting to the different styles of life according to their body then to their primordial abilities. Otherwise the styles are deduced from the different ways of living that one can experiment or observe in our advanced civilization, from documentaries that media are producing about some small isolated peoples (groups), but as well can be confirmed with “The Spirit of Laws” by Montesquieu, and with “The Social Contract” by Rousseau.

The hunters / fishermen / pickers

The easiest group which can be considerable seems to be this one, though in this case at the beginning if the human homes are enough spaced it be not the need to consider a real group (grouping) and the rules seem to not have the need to be very developed in a home, although the apprenticeship to some techniques which could evolve for several generations be natural ; nonetheless a link should be very probably present according to some unavoidable kinship, even if by easiness each home takes a piece of land where it will normally not lack any resource ; moreover the hostility of the environment can already push to form a group in order to hunt, fish and pick, also some conflicts can divide some members of the same family. Thus a level of proximity is occurring quite rapidly what implies some rules in order to avoid the hostilities between human beings and facilitate the formation of couples ; but this kind of society being quite not much developed the considerations are linked at first with the capacity to find some foods easily, so often with the physical capacities ; though the one in order to do weapons and traps be already considerable, but at this level this can come only from the imitation of some encountered facts and not from reflections, intelligence is then not much in demand.
There is as well the option of the move in a group according to seasons and to the move of chase, in this case the group is important because one has to move all the time and one does not know then enough the environment in order to avoid the problems which are coming with ; but this possibility seems less convenient than the other, because more stressful and then normally less practiced.

Friday, January 1, 2010